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Pennsylvania’s Assembly Bible

 
Undoubtedly, the book in the Rare Collections of the State Library that gets the most consistent exposure and regular use is Pennsylvania’s Assembly Bible.  Although it is a large folio edition of the King James Bible, printed by the King’s printer John Baskett at Oxford in 1739, little else distinguishes the work.  In 1753 the Speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly Isaac Norris and Representative Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia ordered this bible along with other books and maps “for the use of the House.”  The bible sat on a lectern in the Assembly hall of the State House, and all meetings of the Assembly opened and closed with readings from it.  Members also took the oath of office or made their solemn affirmations upon its covers.  The Assembly Bible still possesses its original binding of dark red morocco leather.  In 1767 the gilt letters, “Assembly of Pennsylvania,” were added to the cover by Philadelphia bookbinder Samuel Taylor.  For a time the practice of members’ swearing in on the Assembly Bible fell into abeyance.  But, in honor of the 300th anniversary of the formation of the Commonwealth on July 21, 1981, the practice was resumed.       
 
To find out more about Pennsylvania’s Assembly Bible, or to see it, contact Rare Books Librarian Iren Snavely for an appointment.  Telephone: (717) 783-5982 or email: irsnavely@pa.gov
 

Historic World War I Posters Digitized

The Pennsylvania State Archives, in cooperation with the State Library of Pennsylvania, has digitized a collection of World War I posters from its Manuscript Group 200 – Poster Collection and made them available online. This assemblage consists of 258 posters, most of which include color or black-and-white illustrations. The posters were produced primarily on a national scale, although some were also made locally. Most were created in the United States, however, a number were manufactured in Europe, particularly in Britain, France and Italy. Some portray famous and legendary figures such as Joan of Arc and Uncle Sam, while others feature illustrations of common soldiers and civilians. The posters helped to fan the fires of patriotism throughout the United States during the Great War, and helped to transition the country’s position from one of isolationism to one of openly becoming military partners with the Allied Forces in Europe.
 
World War I began in Europe in July 1914, shortly after Austria’s Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist on June 28. Initially the United States remained neutral as the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria) fought against the Allied Powers (France, Great Britain, Russia and Italy). However, in April 1917, the United States declared war against Germany, and later that year against Austria-Hungary. The impetus, according to President Woodrow Wilson, was Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
 
Numerous posters were produced to encourage the purchase of Liberty Bonds during the four Liberty Loan Acts to help finance the United States’ war efforts. Other prominent themes were: Recruitment into the Armed Forces, Food Conservation, Red Cross, United War Work Campaign and the YMCA/YWCA.
 
Various posters sent messages to the home front advising people to do all they could to support the war effort.
 
Numerous World War I posters were directed at women in roles such as mothers, gardeners, shoppers and seamstresses. Mothers were encouraged to send their sons off to war, create victory gardens, shop only for essentials and sew and knit clothing for their families and the troops overseas. Unlike World War II posters, the ones from the First World War did not often depict women as part of the manufacturing team for the war effort.
 
The posters were created by famous, obscure and, in some cases, unknown illustrators. Many were printed by federal agencies such as the Federal Recruitment Office and the National War Garden Commission. The posters are full of color and dramatic symbolism. They were printed to arouse the American fighting spirit and the will to sacrifice on the home front. The United States intervention in World War I led to victory for the Allied Forces and the end of the First World War on November 11, 1918.